Semiconductor advances have brought about ever more powerful computing and communicating capabilities in the forms of AI and 5G. Combined they enable future realization of smart cyber-physical systems that will enhance every aspect of human interaction with the physical world around us. At the same time, the dramatic rise in complexity of these systems will greatly challenge our ability to ensure their reliability and safety. The impending change has great implications on the role of TEST. Component testing will need to become more system-aware. System failure diagnosis will require deeper test data sharing and correlation across the supply chain. Testing will be integral to a monitoring function that operates continuously to assess the state of system health. We will delve into all these aspects on the future roadmap of TEST in this talk.